Introductory comments on airport design issues
from PPRUNE  http://www.pprune.org/cgibin/Ultimate.cgi
Author Topic:   Aircraft/Airport Design Data
JuniorJetClubber
PPRuNe Flight Deck Qualified

Posts: 69
Registered: Sep 2000

posted 17 October 2000 14:56          

Can anyone help by pointing to a website that has information on design restrictions for aircraft and airports?

The sorts of thing I am looking for are:
*Maximum wingspan and aircraft length allowed
*Maximum force allowed on tarmac on landing
*Minimum tarmac strengths
*Minimum runway lengths
*Maximum runway altitudes
plus other similar stuff.

Does anyone know of relevant sites out there?

Ta

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JJC

 

H721
PPRuNe Flight Deck Qualified

Posts: 98
Registered: May 99

posted 17 October 2000 15:35          

Don't have any such info on web. but back to my college days books about airport engineering are easily available. how about try amazon.com for the title then go back to library to get the hard copy.

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Not much of an engineer

 

AntiCrash
PPRuNe Line Training

Posts: 8
Registered: Sep 2000

posted 20 October 2000 01:22             

Check out the Boeing website. I downloaded the entire Boeing 777 airport compatibility manual for free. It was something over 100 pages and addresses the issues in your question. It will be a great start. And it's free, and it's free, and it's free free free !

 

Smurfjet
PPRuNe Flight Deck Qualified

Posts: 288
Registered: Jun 2000

posted 21 October 2000 04:33             

JJC-

Try http://www.boeing.com/assocproducts/aircompat/

And the FAA site at http://www.faa.gov

I also recommend these 2 books:

Airport Operations, by Ashford, Stanton and Moore
ISBN 0-07-003077-4

And

Planning and design of airports, by Horonjeff and McKelvey
ISBN 0-07-113352-6

Regards

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SmurfJet

In this life, you have to think ahead to survive, not just on the flightdeck.

 

OverRun
PPRuNe Line Training

Posts: 9
Registered: Oct 2000

posted 22 October 2000 01:34          

Best book by far is Horonjeff & McKelvey. I've got them all, and this is one we use. Amazon will get it, but it's usually sold out. At the library, the older 3rd edition (green cover) is almost as good as the latest, 4th edition (blue cover).

Other sources (but only if you can't get Horonjeff) are the ICAO Aerodrome Design manual, and Annex 14. The full set is about US$100 from ICAO. You can order on the web. FAA AC150 is the American equivalent.

There are some terminology and definition differences between ICAO (used by most of the world) and FAA (USA) rules, but the principles are similar.


Specific answers to your questions:

*Maximum wingspan and aircraft length allowed.
= This is defined by designer who adopts their clearances in accordance with the aerodrome code that applies to the largest design aircraft (A through E in ICAO rules; 747 is 4E, 767 is 4D, BAe146 is 3C). Most airports have grown up with infrastructure from the DC3 days and have upgraded in dribs and drabs. So they'll have a mixture of 4E clearances for the r/w, t/w and aprons for 747s, through to tight corners and parking bays which are relegated to commuter aircraft.

*Maximum force allowed on tarmac on landing
= desirably zero because just at touchdown, almost all the lift should still be taken by the wings. If hits the tarmac with any force that implies the wings have fallen off, which is a Bad Thing. Longitudinal and lateral forces due to tyre spinup exist, but are not calculated. Instead the type of surfacing (asphalt, concrete, chip seal) is chosen according to the size and frequency of aircraft.

*Minimum tarmac strengths
Set by the PCN pavement classification number - see Horonjeff. Varies by aircraft weight (mainly), with some account for tyre pressure and wheel configuration. A normal truck loading is about 2 tonnes per tyre, and most widebodies have about 20 tonnes per tyre. Starts to get serious above MTOW of 40/60 tonnes (say above A320/737 size), since the loading is proportional to the 4th power of the weight. And don't forget the fire and fuel trucks. A "well-driven" fire truck can rip up pavement just like a widebody aircraft.

*Minimum runway lengths
= depends on aircraft, air temperature, altitude, obstacle clearance gradients, and especially takeoff weight (TOW). TOW in turn depends on fuel load which depends on stage length. It doesn't really vary much with the number of passengers because all runway length designs are at full passenger loads since no-one can afford to fly part empty aircraft. Almost impossible to find published runway lengths, due to the many variables affecting them. Figure on about 2000 metres for aircraft from commuter up to BAe146 size, 2800 metres for aircraft to domestic 767 size, and 3500 metres for intercontinental aircraft with full fuel (767ER, 777, 747). High temperatures or altitudes can add 500 metres. Back to fuel load; when intercontinental planes (747, 767ER) fly on short-medium range sectors, they take off well below their maximum weight. Perth 06/24 runway is 2163m and a 767 bound for Sydney (3327 km) can get off at 140 tonnes in winter and at night. But a 767-300ER bound for Japan and therefore loaded to 182t needs the 03/21 runway with 3444m (and uses lots of it on hot summer days). Of course, you'll always get someone trying to get the mostest off/onto the shortest. I won't mention my personal best nor will anyone else involved, but it was very short and we won't try that again.

*Maximum runway altitudes
There are a few South American operations at the 10,000 to 14,000 feet elevation, but at least it is cool at that elevation. Plenty around the world at 5,000 feet elevation, and that is low enough to get very hot on summer days. Johannesburg or Harare are good examples. High density altitude means thin air with little lift, so long runways with slow acceleration and longer take-off rolls, which means increasingly high tyre temperatures. The practical limit is often that the tyres burst before the aircraft reaches Vr, especially if there was a long taxi distance to the start of the runway.

 

Smurfjet
PPRuNe Flight Deck Qualified

Posts: 288
Registered: Jun 2000

posted 23 October 2000 04:38             

JJC-

I am not sure if what you need is there, but try it anyways

NIMA

 

gaunty
PPRuNe Flight Deck Qualified

Posts: 1459
Registered: Jul 1999

posted 23 October 2000 07:15             

Smurfjet
Thanks for all the great URLs

Thats what I love about PPrune and the internet you get to find all manner of fascinating sites that you may or may not otherwise.
The NIMA one is a cracker if you are like me interested in all matters cartography. Not one just have a fascination for it.

 

JuniorJetClubber
PPRuNe Flight Deck Qualified

Posts: 69
Registered: Sep 2000

posted 23 October 2000 12:16          

Yes I agree with gaunty! What a helpful bunch you all are. Thanks to you all for your help. Very much appreciated as I've been looking for some of this info for months.


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JJC